Most people exposed to American orchestras or concert bands can identify the basic instruments they hear. The musical tools are common—violin, cello, bass drum, trumpet, etc.
You might even know a glockenspiel, if you see one, or a bassoon. Clarinets are prolific in a wide variety of genres. And who couldn't identify a harp, even if your only reference is a Marx brothers movie.
Beyond the influence of Western culture, though, there is a whole world of instruments you aren't likely to hear in a Philharmonic program any time soon, and it's a pity.
Just one example—the angklung is an Indonesian instrument made of bamboo tubes carved for varying pitches. The oldest known angklung is at least 400 years old, but these instruments have been around since the 7th century. Just for fun, enjoy a few moments of these children having fun playing the angklung: